Clomid For Female And Male Infertility
The use of Clomid, clomiphene citrate, in women is a first-line treatment for female infertility caused by defective ovarian function. It is one of the least costly fertility treatments. Your gynecologist can prescribe clomiphene citrate eliminating the additional cost of seeing a fertility specialist. It’s also easier to administer, less invasive and less expensive than in-vitro fertilization (IVF).
Clomiphene citrate has been used around the world for more than 50 years and is considered one of the most essential drugs in the world by the World Health Organization (WHO). Clomiphene is not prescribed for women whose infertility is caused by conditions other than ovarian malfunction. These conditions may include endometriosis, blocked fallopian tubes, and certain cancers.
How Does Clomiphene Work In Women?
Clomiphene corrects insufficient ovarian behavior by stimulating ovulation. Successful ovulation with clomiphene citrate can be as high as 73%.1 Defective ovarian function is defined as:
- Absence of ovulation
- Irregular ovulation
- Lack of quality eggs
How Quickly Does Clomiphene Work?
In best cases, a woman can expect to ovulate within 5 to 10 days after taking her last dose of clomiphene in her 5-day course of treatment.
What Is The Sucess Rate For Getting Pregnant On Clomiphene?
An analysis2 of published results on the effectiveness of clomiphene reported:
- 73% of women eventually ovulated
- 36% achieved pregnancy
- 29% gave birth
How Does Clomiphene Cause Ovulation?
Clomiphene sets off a series of events that increase the chances of pregnancy. First, it blocks estrogen receptors in the hypothalamus. When the hypothalamus (erroneously) detects low estrogen, it directs the pituitary gland to increase follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) production. FSH and LH then raise production of the essential reproductive hormones estrogen and progesterone.
What Is The Role of FSH And LH In Women?
Oocytes (immature eggs) reside inside of ovaries enclosed within follicles. Midway through a woman’s menstrual cycle, FSH and LH naturally surge to set off the process of egg growth and the eventual release of a mature egg by the ovaries. If an egg is fertilized, LH supports the growth of the corpus luteum, a mass of cells that form around a fertilized egg.
Will I Conceive Twins On Clomiphene?
Theoretically, clomiphene can result in multiples by causing the release and growth of more than one egg, but in-vitro fertilization is more closely linked to multiples.3 During a normal menstrual cycle, only one follicle produces a mature egg. Artificial ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate can cause the growth of more than one follicle, thus resulting in more than one egg suitable for fertilization.
Does Clomiphene Increase Estrogen?
Yes, clomiphene may increase estrogen in women by impacting several hormones which trigger estrogen production in women.
How Long Do I Take Clomiphene?
Your physician will advise you on how to take clomiphene. In general, one course of clomiphene treatment in women is the daily intake for 5 days. In most cases, women are not advised to complete more than 3 clomiphene treatment cycles.
Can Clomiphene Treat Male Infertility?
Yes, clomiphene citrate may be prescribed off-label to treat male infertility. Clomid for men can be effective in increasing sperm count and raising overall testosterone levels.
How Does Clomiphene Treat Male Infertility?
In men, generic Clomid stimulates the synthesis and release of FSH by the pituitary gland. FSH signals the Sertoli cells to produce sperm. Clomiphene citrate also increases LH in men. LH fuels the synthesis of Leydig cells, which produce testosterone.
1,2 Roy Homburg, Clomiphene citrate—end of an era? a mini-review, Human Reproduction, Volume 20, Issue 8, August 2005, Pages 2043–2051, https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dei042
3 Kulkarni A, Jamieson D, Jones H et al. Fertility Treatments and Multiple Births in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine. 2013;369(23):2218-2225. Doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1301467
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